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    1. 從比賽爾人走不出大漠談寫作的方向感-詩文寫作隨筆“盜天火”之一 雜談

      遼寧王忠新 1月前 617

      從比賽爾人走不出大漠談寫作的方向感

      詩文寫作隨筆“盜天火”之一

       

      有個故事,說在西撒哈拉沙漠中有一個小村莊比賽爾,它在沒有被發現之前,那里沒人走出過大漠。不是他們不愿離開那兒,而是嘗試多次都沒走出去。一個現代的西方人決心做一次試驗,他從比賽爾村向北走,三天半就走出來了。比賽爾人之所以走不出大漠,是因他們根本就不認識北斗星。因此,他告訴當地一位青年,只要白天休息,夜晚朝著北面那顆星走,那個青年三天后,也走出大漠邊緣。這個青年人成了比賽爾的開拓者,他的銅像被豎在小城中央,銅像的底座上刻著:新生活從選定目標開始。

      其實。無論做人做事,方向感最為重要。無論什么人,無論什么時候,無論做什么事情,都不能失去方向。在方向上人們常犯三種錯誤:一是沒有方向感,人感到茫然,不知往哪走;二是犯了方向性的錯誤,就是在方向的選擇上,出現很大的偏差;三是方向完全錯了,這是根本性錯誤,南轅北轍,越努力越錯。所以,用什么方法走出去,根本在于按什么方向走出去。

      方法論包括方向和方法,方法是解決過河之用的橋和船,是具體的工具和用具。而方法論包括一定的哲學認識論及邏輯推理的思考,是為了判定方向和追求。方法比知識還重要,方向比方法更重要。做任何事情,方向決定一切。文學的所有技巧,都大不過方向。就如“西天取經”,無論遇到多少困難,最重要的就是毫不動搖地堅持正確的方向!

      作一個國家,朝哪個方向走,走什么道,舉什么旗,這是必須回答的重大問題。同樣,作為文學創作,朝哪個方向走,走什么道,舉什么旗,也同樣重要,只不過文學朝什么方向走,具體體現在讓什么人去看,為什么人去寫的問題,這是個根本立場,也是個根本方向。這個根本性的問題解決不好,創作就犯了方向性錯誤,甚至將方向弄反了。創作的方向,這將直接決定其創作作品的方法,作品的表現形式,作品的思想性,作品的價值,作品的影響力,作品的受眾度,作品的生命力,也將直接決定其本人在文學天地生長的空間。

      人民需要作品,而作品更需要人民,這就是革命文藝創作的根本方向!只有將自己與人民聯系在一起去表現,只有反映人民和被人民認可的作品,才有價值,才能永恒!《延安文藝座談會》最大的功績,就是明確了革命文藝這個根本方向?!侗本┪乃囎剷愤M一步明確了“社會主義文藝,從本質上講,就是人民的文藝。文藝要反映好人民心聲,就要堅持為人民服務、為社會主義服務這個根本方向?!?“堅持以人民為中心的創作導向,創作更多無愧于時代的優秀作品?!?

      古今中外一條文學評價的規律就是:金杯銀杯不如百姓口碑。只關心自己的作品,無論寫得多么精巧,也是休閑文學,永遠難登大雅之堂。背離人民和時代的作品,無論弄了一些“吹鼓手”怎么瞎吹,怎么名噪一時,也不過時過境遷。就拿哪個曾經風光一時的“傷痕文學”來說,為了一種特定的迎合,當年是花開的何等妖艷,可最終哪篇經受住了歲月的淘洗,都不過是垃圾一堆,都不過是過眼云煙。

      方向感除了要把握總的創作方向,作為一篇作品,也要把握具體方向,就是要清楚本篇作品要表現什么。這個方向感集中體現在要表現的主題,要制作的標題。這個方向感越明確,作品創作才越自覺,才越連貫,才越有靈氣。

      在具體作品的寫作中,如缺乏方向感,往往想到哪寫到哪,最后胡亂加個什么“春”啊,“冬”之類的抽象標題,這樣的作品,盡管個別細節寫的很巧妙,個別句子很精彩,但通篇讓人不知所云,讓讀者都找不到閱讀的方向。這樣的作品,很難有強大的生命力,很難對社會有干預力,很難對民族精神有滋養作用,很難擁有廣大的讀者,至多有個小圈子互相吹捧。

      所以,搞創作,就像比賽爾小城銅像的底座上刻著的那句話,“新生活從選定目標開始”一樣,新作品也同樣從選定方向開始蘊育!

      (應一些朋友的要求,要我談點寫作體會,特開辟系列性的《詩文寫作隨筆“盜天火”》,以和大家交流。本文配圖自拍。)


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